The Element-Free Galerkin (EFG) was implemented [1,2] in LS-DYNA  to couple with standard FEM to enhance solution accuracy in high gradient field and overcome mesh distortion issue in large deformation analysis. 

  • Advantage

    • High order accuracy and smoothness in solution field

    • No need of hourglass control

  • Current implementation [ex]

    • 2D plain strain & axisymmetric

    • 3D solid and shell

    • FEM mesh automatically converted as EFG input

      • Nodal points converted ​to EFG meshfree nodes

      • Elements converted to background mesh

    • Pressure smoothing in 3D solid [3] [kw]

    • Adaptivity 

    • Thermal-mechanical coupling

    • Explicit and implicit analysis

  • Limitation

    • Not suitable for material failure analysis

 

  • Application​​​

    • Bulk forming, forging & extrusion (EFG solid with adaptivity)

    • Sheet metal forming & crashworthiness (EFG shell)

FEM

EFG